Knowledge Corner

Telangana is one of the 29 states in India, in the southern India. Telangana has an area of 114,840 square kilometres (44,340 sq mi), and a population of 35,193,978 (2011 census). making it the twelfth largest state in India, and the twelfth most populated state in India. Its major cities include Hyderabad,Warangal, Nizamabad, Khammam and Karimnagar. Telangana is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the north and north west, Chhattisgarh to the north,Karnataka to the west, and Andhra Pradesh to the east and south.

Telangana acquired its identity as the Telugu-speaking region of the princely state of Hyderabad, ruled by the Nizam of Hyderabad, joining the Union of India in 1948. In 1956, the Hyderabad state was dissolved as part of the linguistic reorganisation of states and Telangana was merged with former Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh.

History

The name Telangana is derived from the word Trilinga (Sanskrit: त्रिलिङ्ग), as in the Trilinga Desa, which translates to “the country of the three lingas”. According to aHindu legend, Shiva descended in the lingam form on three mountains, Kaleshwaram, Srisailam and Draksharama, which marked the boundaries of the Trilingadesa(Sanskrit: त्रिलिङ्गदेश), later called Telinga, Telunga or Telugu.

During its history, Telangana was governed by many rulers, including the Satavahana dynasty (230 BCE to 220 CE), the Kakatiya Dynasty (1083–1323), the Musunuri Nayaks (1326–1356) the Delhi Sultanate, the Bahmani Sultanate (1347–1512), Qutb Shahi dynasty (1512–1687), Mughal Empire (1687–1724) and Asaf Jahi Dynasty(1724–1948).

Early history

Main articles: Maurya_Empire and Satavahana dynasty

The Satavahana dynasty (230 BCE to 220 CE) became the dominant power in this region. It originated from the lands between the Godavari and Krishna rivers and was based at Amaravathi and Dharanikota. After the decline of the Satavahanas, various dynasties, such as the Vakataka, Vishnukundina, Chalukya, Rashtrakutaand Western Chalukya, ruled the area.

Kakatiya Dynasty

The Telangana area experienced its golden age during the reign of the Kakatiya dynasty , which ruled most parts of the present day Andhra Pradesh and Telangana from 1083 to 1323 CE. Rudrama Devi and Prataparudra II were prominent rulers from the Kakatiya dynasty. The dynasty weakened with the attack of Malik Kafur in 1309 and was dissolved after the defeat of Prataparudra by the forces of Muhammad bin Tughluq in 1323.

Qutb Shahi and Asaf Jahi’s

The area came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate in the 14th century, followed by the Bahmani Sultanate. Quli Qutb Mulk, a governor of Golkonda, revolted against the Bahmani Sultanate and established the Qutb Shahi dynasty in 1518. On 21 September 1687, the Golkonda Sultanate came under the rule of the Mughal emperorAurangzeb after a year-long siege of the Golkonda fort.

In 1712, Qamar-ud-din Khan was appointed by emperor Farrukhsiyar as the viceroy of Deccan with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (meaning “Administrator of the Realm”). He was later recalled to Delhi, with Mubariz Khan appointed as the viceroy. In 1724, Qamar-ud-din Khan defeated Mubariz Khan to reclaim the Deccan suba, establishing it as an autonomous province of the Mughal empire. He took the name Asif Jah, starting what came to be known as the Asif Jahi dynasty. He named the areaHyderabad Deccan. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were called Asif Jahi nizams or nizams of Hyderabad. The Medak and Warangal divisions of Telangana were part of their realm.

When Asif Jah I died in 1748, there was political unrest due to contention for the throne among his sons, who were aided by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces. In 1769, Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the nizams. The nizam Nasir-ud-dawlah, Asaf Jah IV signed the Subsidiary Alliance with the British in 1799 and lost its control over the state’s defence and foreign affairs. Hyderabad State became a princely state among the presidencies and provinces of British India.

Geography

Telangana is situated on the Deccan Plateau, in the central stretch of the eastern seaboard of the Indian Peninsula. It covers 114,840 square kilometres (44,340 sq mi). The region is drained by two major rivers, with about 79% of the Godavari River catchment area and about 69% of the Krishna River catchment area, but most of the land is arid. Telangana is also drained by several minor rivers such as the Bhima, the Maner, the Manjira and the Musi.

The annual rainfall is between 900 and 1500 mm in northern Telangana and 700 to 900 mm in southern Telangana, from the southwest monsoons. Various soil types abound, including chalkas, red sandy soils, dubbas, deep red loamy soils, and very deep black cotton soils that facilitate planting mangoes, oranges and flowers.

Demographics

According to the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme 2009–10, There are 9 backward districts (all except Hyderabad) from Telangana and the rest are from other regions.

The religious makeup of Telangana is about 85% Hindu, 12.7% Muslim, and 1.3% Christian, and 0.9% others.

Telugu and Urdu are the official languages of Telangana. About 77% of the population of Telangana speak Telugu, 12% speak Urdu, and 13% speak other languages. Before 1948, Urdu was the official language of Hyderabad State, and due to a lack of Telugu-language educational institutions, Urdu was the language of the educated elite of Telangana. After 1948, once Hyderabad State joined the new Republic of India, Telugu became the language of government, and as Telugu was introduced as the medium of instruction in schools and colleges, the use of Urdu among non-Muslims decreased. The Urdu spoken in Telangana is called Hyderabadi Urdu, which in itself is a dialect of the larger Dakhini Urdu dialects of South India. Although the language is orally spoken by most Hyderabadi Muslims, the language in a literary context has long been lost, and standard Urdu is used.

According to the 2011 census, Telangana’s literacy rate is 66.46%. Male literacy and female literacy are 74.95% and 57.92% respectively. Hyderabad district leading with 80.96% and Mahabubnagar district at the bottom with 56.06%.

Skill Test

1. Telangana is ___ state of India
2. State the year when Telangana was merged with Andhra Pradesh?
3. Which party formed Telangana’s first government?
4. What is the total area of the state Telangana?
5. What was the date on which the new state was formed?
6. Who is selected as the brand ambassador of the newly formed state Telangana?
7. From which state the new born state came out?
8. Which of the following districts is part of Telangana?
9. First Chief Minister of Telangana State
10. Name the state which shares the same capital as of Telangana?
11. Which city is Capital of Telangana?
12. What is the total number of loksabha constituency valid from Telangana?
13. Which of the following districts is not part of Telangana?
14. What is the total number of districts present in Telangana?
15. What is the second official language of Telangana?
16. Who took oath as first Governor of Telangana?
17. What rank in India is held by Telangana in terms of total area?
18. Which is the state bird of Telangana?
19. When was Telangana merged with Andhra Pradesh?
20. Name the dynasties who ruled Telangana?
21. What is the official language of Telangana?
22. In which year was the state of Telangana formed?
23. State the date in which Telangana was merged with Andhra Pradesh?
24. Who were rulers of Hyderabad in 1724-1948?