Knowledge Corner

Jharkhand is a state in eastern India carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south, and West Bengal to the east. It has an area of 79,710 km2 (30,778 sq mi). The city of Ranchi is its capital while the industrial city ofJamshedpur is the most populous city of the state.

History

According to writers including Gautam Kumar Bera, there was already a distinct geo-political, cultural entity called Jharkhand even before the Magadha Empire. Bera’s book (page 33) also refers to the Hindu epic Bhavishya Purana. The tribal rulers, some of whom continue to thrive till today were known as the Munda Rajas, who basically had ownership rights to large farmlands. Many scholars now believe that the language used by tribes in the state of Jharkhand is identical to the one used by Harappan people. This has led to interest in deciphering Harappa inscriptions using rock paintings and language used by these tribes. For a greater part of Vedic age, Jharkhand remained unnoticed. During the age of Mahajanpadas around 500 BC, India saw the emergence of 16 large states that controlled the entire Indian subcontinent. In those days the northern portion of Jharkhand state was a tributary state of Magadha (ancient Bihar) Empire and southern part was a tributary of Kalinga (ancient Odisha) Empire.

Geography and climate

At 1366 m Parasnath is the highest point in the state of Jharkhand. It is easily accessible from Parasnath railway station. At present 29.61% of the state’s total landmass is covered by forest.

Demography

State symbols of Jharkhand
State animalElephant
State birdKoel
State treeSaal
State flowerPalash

Census data since 1881 has shown a gradual decline of tribal population in Jharkhand as against the gradual increase of non-tribal population in the region. The reasons given for this are the low birth rate and high death rate among the tribes; immigration of non-tribal peoples; emigration of tribal peoples; and the adverse effects of industrialisation and urbanisation in the region. Tribal leaders assert, however, that their numbers are not as low as recorded by the census, that they are still in the majority, and that they remain a demographic force to reckon with. Jharkhand has a population of 32.96 million, consisting of 16.93 million males and 16.03 million females. The sex ratio is 947 females to 1000 males. The population consists of 28% tribal peoples, 12% Scheduled Castes and 60% others. The population density of the state is 414 persons per square kilometre of land; it varies from as low as 148 per square kilometre in Gumla district to as high as 1167 per square kilometre in Dhanbad district.

Religion

As per 2011 Census of India, Hinduism is the major religion in the state with 67.8% adherents followed by Islam (14.5%) and Christianity (4.3%). Other religions constitute 12.8% of state population, which is primarily Sarnaism. The total population of Jharkhand is 3.2 crore, of which Hindus are 2.2 crore (67.8%).

Skill Test

1. Name the founder of the TISCO factory.
2. In which year did the Chota Nagpur Tribal Revolution take place?
3. Which state borders Jharkhand from the east?
4. When was Jharkhand declared as a separate state?
5. Name the animal for which the Betla National Park is reserved.
6. Name the type of rock found in the Chota Nagpur Plateau.
7. Name the first Governor of Jharkhand.
8. Name the mine from which TISCO gets its iron ore supply.
9. Name the city of Jharkhand that is better known as the Steel City.
10. Which one of the following is regarded as a brave martial tribe?
11. Which waterfall is not paired with the correct district?
12. Name the tribe who live in the district of Palamu.
13. Name the highest point in Jharkhand.
14. Name the capital city of Jharkhand.
15. What is the main source of income in Jharkhand?
16. Name the state that borders Jharkhand from the north.
17. Which city is known as Tatanagar?
18. Which is the state bird of Jharkhand?
19. Name the first Chief Minister of Jharkhand.
20. Name the first official language of Jharkhand.