Knowledge Corner

Haryana  is one of the 29 states in India, situated in North India. It was carved out of the former state of East Punjabon 1 November 1966 on a linguistic basis. It stands 21st in terms of its area, which is spread about 44,212 km2 (17,070 sq mi). As of 2011 census of India, the state is eighteenth largest by population with 25,353,081 inhabitants.

Haryana is one of the most economically developed regions in South Asia, and its agricultural and manufacturing industries have experienced sustained growth since the 1970s. Since 2000, the state has emerged as the largest recipient of investment per capita in India.

It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and by Rajasthan to the west and south. The river Yamuna defines its eastern border with Uttar Pradesh. Haryana surrounds the country’s capital Delhi on three sides, forming the northern, western and southern borders of Delhi. Consequently, a large area of south Haryana is included in the National Capital Region for purposes of planning for development.

History

The name Haryana is found in the works of the 12th-century AD Apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar (VS 1189–1230). The name Haryana have been derived from the Sanskrit words Hari (the Hindu god Vishnu) and ayana (home), meaning “the Abode of God”. However, scholars such as Muni Lal, Murli Chand Sharma, HA Phadke and Sukhdev Singh Chib believe that the name comes from a compound of the words Hari (Sanskrit Harit, “green”) and Aranya (forest).

Pre-history

Vedic state of Brahmavarta is claimed to be located in a new research in south Haryana, where initial Vedic scriptures were composed after the great floods some 10,000 years ago. Manusmriti, a flood time document composed by Manu and Bhriguis now dated 10,000 years old. Rakhigarhi village in the Hisar district is home to the largest and one of the oldest ancientIndus Valley Civilization sites, dated as over 5,000 years old. Evidence of paved roads, a drainage system, a large-scale rainwater collection storage system, terracotta brick and statue production, and skilled metal working (in both bronze and precious metals) have been uncovered. According to archeologists, Rakhigarhi may be the origin of Harappan civilisation, which arose in the Ghaggar basin in Haryana and gradually and slowly moved to the Indus valley.

Medieval

Ancient idols of Jain Tirthankara (made of bronze and stone) were found in archaeological expeditions in Badli, Bhiwani (Ranila,Charkhi Dadri, Badhara village), Dadri, Gurgaon (Ferozpur Jhirka), Hansi, Hisar (Agroha), Kasan, Nahad, Narnaul, Pehowa,Rewari, Rohad, Rohtak (Asthal-Abohar) and Sonepat in Haryana.

The area that is now Haryana has been ruled by major empires of India. Panipat is known for three seminal battles in the history of India. In the First Battle of Panipat (1526), Babur defeated the Lodis. In the Second Battle of Panipat (1556), Akbardefeated the local Haryanvi Hindu Emperor of Delhi, who belonged to Rewari. Hemu, had earlier won 22 battles across India from Punjab to Bengal defeating Mughals and Afghans. Hemu had defeated Akbar’s forces twice at Agra and Battle of Delhi in 1556 to become last Hindu Emperor of India with formal Coronation at Purana Quila in Delhi on 7th Oct. 1556. In the Third Battle of Panipat (1761), the Afghan king Ahmad Shah Abdali defeated the Marathas.

Formation

Haryana state was formed on 1 November 1966. The Indian government set up the Shah Commission under the chairmanship of Justice JC Shah on 23 April 1966 to divide the existing Punjab, India and determine the boundaries of the new state of Haryana after consideration of the languages spoken by the people. The commission delivered its report on 31 May 1966 whereby the then-districts of Hisar, Mahendragarh, Gurgaon, Rohtak and Karnal were to be a part of the new state of Haryana. Further, the tehsils ofJind and Narwana in the Sangrur district—along with Naraingarh, Ambala and Jagadhri—were to be included.

The commission recommended that the tehsil of Kharad, which includes Chandigarh, the state capital of Punjab, should be a part of Haryana. However, only a small portion of Kharad was given to Haryana. The city of Chandigarh was made a union territory, serving as the capital of both Punjab and Haryana.

Bhagwat Dayal Sharma became first Chief Minister of Haryana.

Geography

Haryana is a landlocked state in northern India. It is between 27°39′ to 30°35′ N latitude and between 74°28′ and 77°36′ E longitude. The total geographical area of the state is 4.42 m ha, which is 1.4% of the geographical area of the country. The altitude of Haryana varies between 700 and 3600 ft (200 metres to 1200 metres) above sea level. As per India State of Forest Report, FSI, 2013, the Forest Cover in the state is 1586 km2 which is 3.59% of the state’s geographical area and the Tree Cover in the state is 1282 km2 which is 2.90% of the geographical area. Thus the Forest and Tree Cover of the Haryana state is 6.49% of its geographical area.

Haryana has four main geographical features.

The Yamuna-Ghaggar plain forming the largest part of the state
The Shivalik Hills to the northeast
Semi-desert sandy plain to the southwest
The Aravalli Range in the south

Rivers

Yamuna River near the Haryana Border
The Yamuna flows along the state’s eastern boundary while the ancient Sarasvati River is said to have flowed from Yamuna Nagar, but has now disappeared.

Haryana’s main seasonal river, the Ghaggar rises in the outer Himalayas, between the Yamuna and the Satluj and enters the state near Pinjore in the Panchkula district. Passing through Ambala and Sirsa, it reaches Bikaner in Rajasthan and runs for 460 km (290 mi) before disappearing into the deserts of Rajasthan. Important tributaries include the Chautang and Tangri.

The seasonal Markanda River is a stream, which in ancient times was known as the Aruna. It originates from the lower Shivalik Hills and enters Haryana west of Ambala. During monsoons, this stream swells into a raging torrent notorious for its devastating power. The surplus water is carried on to the Sanisa Lake where the Markanda joins the Saraswati and later the Ghaggar.

Three other rivulets in and around the Mewat hills, the Indori, Dohan and Kasavati all flow from East to West and once were tributaries of the Drishadwati/Saraswatirivers.

Demographics

According to the 2011 census, Hindus (87.45%) constitute the majority of the state’s population with Sikhs (4.91%), Muslims (7.03%) (mainly Meos) being the largest minorities.
Jats form the largest ethnic group in Haryana with approximately 25% population. Out of 80 castes, 63 castes/communities have been notified either as a Scheduled Caste or Backward Class in Haryana. The reservation limit in state is 47% as of now.

Muslims are mainly found in the Mewat and Yamuna Nagar districts, while Sikhs live mostly in the districts adjoining Punjab, Hisar, Sirsa, Jind, Fatehabad, Kaithal, Kurukshetra,Ambala, Narnaul and Panchkula karnal. Haryana has the second largest Sikh population in India after the state of Punjab. In May 2014, the Haryana Government published the Haryana Anand Marriages Registration Rules, 2014, allowing Sikhs to register their marriages under these rules.

Languages

Haryanvi has traditionally been the dominant mother tongue in Haryana, with Standard Hindi being spoken as a second language. Haryanvi has no official status, as it is seen as a dialect of Hindi; thus Hindi is the official language and the most commonly spoken language in the state. Since it was the Punjabi Suba movement that had led to formation of Haryana, Bansi Lal thought, “Let any language other than Punjabi be the second language of the state”. Hence, Tamil became the second state language even though there might not have been even a single Tamil native family in the state. Since 1947, Punjabi has been spoken by many people in Haryana especially by those Hindus and Sikhs who migrated from West Punjab, following the Partition of India. As such, Punjabi edged out Tamil as the secondary official language of the state, other than Hindi and English, in 2010. Punjabi speakers account for 11% of the state’s population. Haryana has second largest Punjabi speaking population in India after the state of Punjab.

Skill Test

1. What was Haryana better known as during the ancient age of Mahabharata?

2. Which state borders Haryana from the South?

3. When was the first Battle of Panipat fought?

4. Which fauna is extensively found in the Kalesar National Park of Haryana?

5. Name the district where the Rajiv Gandhi Thermal Power Plant of 1200 MW is located.

6. Name the place in Haryana where Lord Krishna preached his teachings from Bhagwat Gita.

7. Name the traditional folk dance of Haryana.

8. How much amount is provided by the Government of Haryana under the ‘Indira Gandhi Priyadarshini Vivah Shagun Yojana’ for the marriage of girls belonging to the SC and BPL families?

9. What is the present power generation capacity of Haryana?

10. How many states border Haryana?

11. Name the official language of Haryana.

12. Name the capital city of Haryana.

13. Which famous car manufacturing unit is situated in Gurgaon?

14. Name the river of Haryana on which the three important dams have been constructed?

15. Which is the state bird of Haryana?

16. In which place of Haryana is the Atlas Industry located?

17. Which famous national cricketer is from Haryana?

18. In which year was Haryana formed?

19. Where has been the Centre of Excellence for Vegetables established?