Knowledge Corner

Chhattisgarh is a state in central India. It is the 10th largest state in India, with an area of 135,194 km2 (52,199 sq mi). With a population of 28 million, Chhattisgarh is the 17th most-populated state of the nation. It is a source of electricity and steel for India, accounting for 15% of the total steelproduced in the country. Chhattisgarh is one of the fastest-developing states in India.

The state was formed on 1 November 2000 by partitioning 16 Chhattisgarhi-speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh. Raipur was made its capital city. Chhattisgarh borders the states of Madhya Pradesh in the northwest, Maharashtra in the southwest, Andhra Pradesh (East Godavari District) in the south, Telangana (which includes eastern parts of old Bhadrachalam constituency which was part of East Godavari District prior to 1956 and later added to Khammam district and most of which was retained by Telangana after Andhra Pradesh’s bifurcation in 2014) in the south, Odisha in the east, Jharkhand in the northeast and Uttar Pradesh in the north. Currently the state comprises 27 districts.

History

There are several opinions as to the origin of the name Chhattisgarh, which in ancient times was known as Dakshina Kosala (South Kosala). “Chhattisgarh” was popularized later during the time of the Maratha Empire and was first used in an official document in 1795.

It is claimed that Chhattisgarh takes its name from the 36 ancient forts in the area (chhattis—thirty-six” and garh—fort). The old state had 36 demesnes (feudal territories): Ratanpur, Vijaypur, Kharound, Maro, Kautgarh, Nawagarh, Sondhi, Aukhar, Padarbhatta, Semriya, Champa, Lafa, Chhuri, Kenda, Matin, Aparora, Pendra, Kurkuti-kandri, Raipur, Patan, Simaga, Singarpur, Lavan, Omera, Durg, Saradha, Sirasa, Menhadi, Khallari, Sirpur, Figeswar, Rajim, Singhangarh, Suvarmar, Tenganagarh and Akaltara. However, experts do not agree with this explanation, as 36 forts cannot be archaeologically identified in this region.

Another view, more popular with experts and historians, is that Chhattisgarh is the corrupted form of Chedisgarh which means Raj or “Empire of the Chedis”. In ancient time Chhattisgarh region was also part of Chedi dynasty of Kaling,modern Odisha.In medieval period up to arrival of 1803 major partion of present eastern Chhattisgarh was part of Chauhan rulers of Hirakhand or Sambalpur Kingdom of Odisha.

Separation of Chhattisgarh

The present state of Chhattisgarh was carved out of Madhya Pradesh on November 1, 2000. The demand for a separate state was first raised in the 1920s. Similar demands kept cropping up at regular intervals; however, a well-organized movement was never launched. Several all-party platforms were formed and they usually resolved around petitions, public meetings, seminars, rallies and strikes. A demand for separate Chhattisgarh was raised in 1924 by the Raipur Congress unit and also discussed in the Annual Session of the Indian Congress at Tripuri. A discussion also took place of forming a Regional Congress organization for Chhattisgarh. When the State Reorganisation Commission was set up in 1954, the demand for a separate Chhattisgarh was put forward, but was not accepted. In 1955, a demand for a separate state was raised in the Nagpur assembly of the then state of Madhya Bharat.

The 1990s saw more activity for a demand for the new state, such as the formation of a statewide political forum, especially the Chhattisgarh Rajya Nirman Manch. Chandulal Chadrakar led this forum, several successful region-wide strikes and rallies were organized under the banner of the forum, all of which were supported by major political parties, including the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party.

The new National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government sent the redrafted Separate Chhattisgarh Bill for the approval of the Madhya Pradesh Assembly, where it was once again unanimously approved and then it was tabled in the Lok Sabha. This bill for a separate Chhattisgarh was passed in the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, paving the way for the creation of a separate state of Chhattisgarh. The President of India gave his consent to the Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act 2000 on 25 August 2000. The Government of India subsequently set 1 November 2000, as the day the state of Madhya Pradesh would be divided into Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh.

Geography

The northern and southern parts of the state are hilly, while the central part is a fertile plain. The highest point in the state is the Bailadila Range.Deciduous forests of the Eastern Highlands Forests cover roughly 44% of the state. The state animal is the van bhainsa, or wild water buffalo. The state bird is the pahari myna, or hill myna. The state tree is the Sal (Sarai) found in Bastar division.

Sal- The State Tree of Chhattisgarh

In, the north lies the edge of the great Indo-Gangetic plain. The Rihand River, a tributary of the Ganges, drains this area. The eastern end of the Satpura Range and the western edge of the Chota Nagpur Plateau form an east-west belt of hills that divide the Mahanadi River basin from the Indo-Gangetic plain. The outline of Chhattisgarh is like a sea horse.

The central part of the state lies in the fertile upper basin of the Mahanadi river and its tributaries. This area has extensive rice cultivation. The upper Mahanadi basin is separated from the upper Narmada basin to the west by the Maikal Hills (part of the Satpuras) and from the plains of Odisha to the east by ranges of hills. The southern part of the state lies on the Deccan plateau, in the watershed of the Godavari River and its tributary, the Indravati River. The Mahanadi is the chief river of the state. The other main rivers are Hasdo (a tributary of Mahanadi), Rihand, Indravati, Jonk, Arpa and Shivnath. It is situated in the east of Madhya Pradesh.

Amrit Dhara Waterfall. The natural beauty of Koriya includes dense forests, mountains, rivers and waterfalls. Amrit Dhara Waterfall in Koriya is among the most famous waterfalls in Koriya. Koriya in Chhattisgarh was a princely state during the British rule in India. Koriya is also known for the rich mineral deposits. Coal is found in abundance in this part of the country. The dense forests are rich in wildlife.

The Amrit Dhara Water fall, Koriya is a natural waterfall which originates from the Hasdo River. The fall is situated at a distance of seven kilometers from Nagpur. The waterfall is ideally located on the Manendragarh-Baikunthpur road. The Amrit Dhara Waterfall in Koriya in Chhattisgarh in India falls from a height of 27 m. The waterfall is about 3–4.5 m wide. The point where the water falls, there, a cloudy atmosphere is formed all around. Chirimiri Is The Jannat Of Chhattisgarh.

 

Skill Test

1. The Niagara of India is situated in which place of Chhattisgarh
2. Name the state that lies to the east of Chhattisgarh?
3. Name the current chief Minister of Chhattisgarh
4. Which is the state bird of Chhattisgarh?
5. Chhattisgarh is famous for producing what?
6. Which is the highest point in Chhattisgarh
7. Name the state that is west to the Chhattisgarh
8. Name the governor of the state of Chhattisgarh in the year 2011.
9. Name the festival that is celebrated by Chhattisgarh every year to mark the birth of the state?
10. On which date the state of Chhattisgarh was formed?
11. What is the total number of Parliamentary Constituency representing form the state of Chhattisgarh
12. What is the number of Districts present in the state of Chhattisgarh?
13. In which year the state of Chhattisgarh was formed?
14. From which state did the new state of Chhattisgarh was formed
15. Name the capital of state of Chhattisgarh
16. Name the state that lies to the south of Chhattisgarh?