Knowledge Corner

Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India, situated on the southeastern coast of the country. The state is the eighth largest state in India covering an area of 160,205 km2 (61,855 sq mi). As per 2011 census of India, the state is tenth largest by population with 49,386,799 inhabitants. On 2 June 2014, the north-western portion of the state was bifurcated to form a new state of Telangana. In accordance with the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, Hyderabad will remain the de jure capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states for a period of time not exceeding 10 years. The new river-front proposed capital in Guntur district is Amaravati, which is under the jurisdiction of APCRDA. The Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) of the state in the 2014–15 financial year at current prices stood at ₹5,200.3 billion (US$77 billion) and ₹4,641.84 billion (US$69 billion) in the 2013–14 financial year.

The state has a coastline of 974 km (605 mi), the second longest among all the states of India after Gujarat. It is bordered by Telangana in the north-west, Chhattisgarh in the north, Odisha in the north-east, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south and the water body of Bay of Bengal in the east. A small enclave of 30 km2 (12 sq mi) of Yanam, a district of Puducherry, lies south of Kakinada in the Godavari delta to the northeast of the state.

There are two regions in the state namely Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema. These two regions comprise 13 districts, with 9 in Coastal Andhra and 4 in Rayalaseema. Visakhapatnam is the largest city and a commercial hub of the state with a GDP of $26 billion followed by Vijayawada with a GDP of $3 billion as of 2010.

History

A tribe named Andhra has been mentioned in the Sanskrit texts such as Aitareya Brahmana (800-500 BCE). According to Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig Veda, the Andhras left north India and settled in south India.

Early history

Archaeological evidence from places such as Amaravati, Dharanikota and Vaddamanu suggests that the Andhra region was part of the Mauryan Empire. Amaravati might have been a regional centre for the Mauryan rule. After the death of emperor Ashoka, the Mauryan rule weakened around 200 BCE, and was replaced by several small kingships in the Andhra region.

Satavahana empire

The Satavahana dynasty dominated the Deccan region from the 1st century BCE to the 3rd century CE. The Satavahanas have been mentioned by the names “Andhra”, “Andhrara-jatiya” and “Andhra-bhrtya” in the Puranic literature. Satavahanas do not refer to themselves as “Andhra” in any of their coins or inscriptions; it could be possible that they were termed as “Andhras” because of their ethnicity or because their territory included the Andhra region.

Dharanikota along with Amaravathi was the capital of the later Satavahanas. Amaravathi became a major trade and pilgrimage centre during the Satavahana rule. According to the Buddhist tradition, Nagarjuna lived here, possibly in second and third centuries CE.

Ikshvakus

Andhra Ikshvakus were one of the earliest recorded ruling dynasties of the Guntur-Krishna regions of Andhra Pradesh. They ruled the eastern Andhra country along the Krishna river during the later half of the second century CE. Puranas called Andhra Ikshvakus Shri Parvatiya Andhras. Their capital was Vijayapuri (Nagarjunakonda). It is a strong common belief among some historians that Andhra Ikshvakus were related to the mythological Ikshvakus, while some believe Andhra Ikshvakus seem to be a local tribe who adopted the title.

Archaeological evidence has suggested that the Andhra Ikshvakus immediately succeeded the Satavahanas in the Krishna river valley. Ikshvakus have left inscriptions at Nagarjunakonda, Jaggayyapeta, Amaravati and Bhattiprolu.

Pallavas

During third century AD, there was utter political and military confusion in the coastal Andhra due to the invasion of the Abhiras and their allies on the last Ikshvaku remnants and the rise of the Brihatphalayanas, the Anandagotras and the Salankayanas on the other. Simha Varma of the Manchikallu stone inscription establishes the independent rule of the Pallavas in parts of the Krishna valley of Andhra Pradesh.

During the reign of Maharaja Sivaskanda Varma of the Mayidavolu, Hirahadagalli, the early Pallavas became dominant power in the first quarter of the fourth century AD Sivaskanda Varma was the first great ruler of the early Pallavas. He extended his dominions from the Krishna in the north to the south Pennar in the south and to the Bellary district in the West. He performed the Aswamedha and other Vedic sacrifices.

Most of the Pallava Prakrit and Sanskrit charters from the southern Andhra country intimately connects them with the history of southern Andhra. The influence of the Pallavas was still felt by Andhra till it was swept by the Western Chalukyan invasion led by Pulakesin II in the first quarter of the seventh century AD. The Pallavas were not a recognised political power before the 2nd century AD. Pallavas were originally executive officers under the Satavahana kings.

Vishnukundinas

Since the fall of the Ikshvakus, the Vishnukundinas were the first great dynasty, which held sway way over the entire Andhra country including Kalinga and parts of Telangana and played an important and imperial role in the history of Deccan during the fifth and sixth century AD.

Salankayanas

The Salankayanas were an ancient dynasty that ruled the Andhra region between Godavari and Krishna with their capital as Vengi, modern Pedavegi 12 km from Eluru in West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, India’s from 300 to 440 AD. They were Brahmins and their name is derived from their symbol and gotra name, which stood for Nandi (the bull of Shiva).

Eastern Chalukyas

Eastern Chalukyas, or Chalukyas of Vengi, were a South Indian dynasty whose kingdom was located in the present day Andhra Pradesh. Their capital was Vengi near Eluru and their dynasty lasted for around 500 years from the 7th century until c. 1130 C.E. when the Vengi kingdom merged with the Chola empire. The Vengi kingdom was continued to be ruled by Eastern Chalukyan kings under the protection of the Chola empire until 1189 C.E., when the kingdom succumbed to the Hoysalas and the Yadavas. They had their capital originally at Vengi near Eluru of the West Godavari district end later changed to Rajamahendravaram (Rajamundry).

Chola Dynasty

The Chola dynasty ruled Andhra during the period of 1010–1200. The Chola territories stretched from the islands of the Maldives in the south to as far north as the banks of the Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh.

The roots of the Telugu language have been seen on inscriptions found near the Guntur district and from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in the fifth century CE.

Reddy Dynasty

The Reddy dynasty (1325–1448 CE) was established in present-day coastal Andhra Pradesh by Prolaya Vema Reddi in the early fourteenth century. The region that was ruled by this dynasty spanned present day coastal andhra from Visakhapatnam in the north to Kanchipuram in the south. Prolaya Vema Reddi was part of the confederation of states that started a movement against the invading Turkic Muslim armies of the Delhi Sultanate in 1323 CE and succeeded in repulsing them from Warangal. Today Reddys is a social group or caste of India, predominantly inhabiting the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.

Vijayanagara Empire

The Vijayanagara Empire was an empire originated South India, in the Deccan Plateau region in the early fourteenth century. It was established in 1336 by Harihara Raya I and his brother Bukka Raya I of Sangama Dynasty. The empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic invasions by the end of the thirteenth century. It lasted until 1646 although its power declined after a major military defeat in 1565 to the Deccan sultanates. The empire is named after its capital city of Vijayanagara, whose ruins surround present day Hampi, now a World Heritage Site in Karnataka, India.

The empire’s legacy includes many monuments spread over South India, the best known of which is the group at Hampi. The Vijayanagara empire’s time is considered as the golden era of South India in many aspects by historian be it prosperity, welfare, wealth, military might and nurturing of arts.The previous temple building traditions in South India came together in the Vijayanagara Architecture style. The mingling of all faiths and vernaculars inspired architectural innovation of Hindu temple construction, first in the Deccan and later in the Dravidian idioms using the local granite. Efficient administration and vigorous overseas trade brought new technologies such as water management systems for irrigation. The empire’s patronage enabled fine arts and literature to reach new heights in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Sanskrit, while Carnatic music evolved into its current form. The Vijayanagara Empire created an epoch in South Indian history that transcended regionalism by promoting Hinduism as a unifying factor.

Modern history

Inspired by their success, the Vijayanagara Empire, one of the greatest empires in the history of Andhra Pradesh and India, was founded by Harihara and Bukka, who served as treasury officers of the Kakatiyas of Warangal. In 1347 CE, an independent Muslim state, the Bahmani Sultanate, was established in south India by Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in a revolt against the Delhi Sultanate. The Qutb Shahi dynasty held sway over the Andhra country for about two hundred years from the early part of the sixteenth century to the end of the seventeenth century.

In the early 19th century, Northern Circars was ceded and it became part of the British East India company held Madras Presidency. Eventually this region emerged as the Coastal Andhra region. Later the Nizamrulers of Hyderabad ceded five territories to the British which eventually emerged as Rayalaseema region. The Nizams retained control of the interior provinces as the princely state of Hyderabad, acknowledging British rule in return for local autonomy. However, Komaram Bheem, a tribal leader, started his fight against the erstwhile Asaf Jahi Dynasty for the liberation of Hyderabad State. Meanwhile, the French occupiedYanam, in the Godavari delta, and (save for periods of British control) would hold it until 1954.In 1947 Vizianagaram was the largest Hindu Princely state in Andhra Pradesh.

India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947. The Nizam wanted to retain the independence of the Princely Hyderabad State from India, but the people of the region launched a movement to join the Indian Union. The state of Hyderabad was forcibly joined to the Republic of India with Operation Polo in 1948.

Demographics

As of 2011 Census of India, the state had a population of 49,386,799 with a population density of 308/km2 (800/sq mi). The total population constitute, 70.4% of rural population with 34,776,389 inhabitants and 29.6% of urban population with 14,610,410 inhabitants. Children in the age group of 0–6 years are 5,222,384, constituting 10.6% of the total population, among them 2,686,453 are boys and 2,535,931 are girls. Visakhapatnam district has the largest urban population of 47.5% and Srikakulam district with 83.8%, has the largest rural population, among others districts in the state. The overall population of the state comprises 17.1% of Scheduled Caste and 5.3% of Scheduled Tribe population.

There are 24,738,068 male and 24,648,731 female citizens—a sex ratio of 996 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 926 per 1000. The literacy rate of the state stands at 67.41%. West Godavari district has the highest literacy rate of 74.6% and Vizianagaram district has the least with 58.9%.

Andhra Pradesh ranks tenth of all Indian States in the Human Development Index scores with a score of 0.416. The National Council of Applied Economic Research district analysis in 2001 reveals that Krishna, West Godavari and Chittoor are the three districts in rural AP with the highest Human Development Index scores in ascending order.

Visakhapatnam is the most populous city in Andhra Pradesh, and the 15th largest city in India

Languages

The official language of Andhra Pradesh is Telugu.The Minister of Tourism and Culture has issued a declaration of the Telugu language as a Classical Language. Other languages often spoken in the state include Tamil, Kannada and Odia.

Religions

Religion in Andhra Pradesh
Religion Percent
Hindus 91.25%
Muslims 6.25%
Others 2.50%

According to the 2011 census, the Andhra Pradesh state’s population (before the state’s bifurcation, hence includes religious affiliation from neighbouring Telangana too) (This does not reflect the current religious affiliation in Andhra Pradesh formed as of 2 July 2014, religious data for Andhra Pradesh is around 91.25% Hindu with a Muslim minority of 6.25% along with smaller numbers of Christians, Jains, Sikhs, and Buddhists.

Skill Test

1. Name the new expected capital of Andhra Pradesh?
2. U R Ananthamurthy is a writer of which language?
3. Name the largest city of the state Andhra Pradesh
4. Which city was the first victim of the British Policy of Subsidiary Alliance?
5. What is the capital of Andhra Pradesh?
6. What is the state animal of Andhra Pradesh?
7. The 4th Telugu world conference was hosted by which city?
8. To which the Hyderabad Pledge is related to?
9. Which is the secondary language of Andhra Pradesh?
10. Telugu Ganga Project aims at
11. What is the total number of Loksabha seats in Andhra Pradesh?
12. Which is the state bird of Andhra Pradesh?
13. Name the new state formed out of Andhra Pradesh
14. Where is the space center Satish Dhawan located at?
15. Guntur of Andhra Pradesh is famous for?
16. What is the number of districts in the state of Andhra Pradesh?
17. Which is the district of Andhra Pradesh known as the Rice Bowl of Andhra Pradesh?
18. Which dance is associated with the state of Andhra Pradesh?
19. Who is the founder of the Telugudesam Party?
20. The First city of India to come up with the Bio diversity Index
21. What is the capital of Andhra Pradesh?
22. When was the state of Andhra Pradesh created?
23. Shimadri Super Thermal Power plant is situated where?